Global waste paper trade not only addresses resource scarcity issues, alleviates environmental pressures and brings substantial economic gains, but also contributes to the development of global circular economy.
Here, we construct global waste paper trade networks (GWPTNs) during 2000–2018, and examine their structural evolution and determinants.
Continent: Asia is the leading recipient of global waste paper, while Europe and North America are the main exporters.
Economy: China and India dominate the waste paper import markets while the U.S. is the largest exporter; Germany is important in both importing and exporting hubs.
Determinants: urbanization, GDP, environmental regulation, sharing language or religion, culture & historical relationships