Evolution of structural properties and determinants of global waste paper trade network

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Global waste paper trade not only addresses resource scarcity issues, alleviates environmental pressures and brings substantial economic gains, but also contributes to the development of global circular economy.

Here, we construct global waste paper trade networks (GWPTNs) during 2000–2018, and examine their structural evolution and determinants.

  • Continent: Asia is the leading recipient of global waste paper, while Europe and North America are the main exporters.
  • Economy: China and India dominate the waste paper import markets while the U.S. is the largest exporter; Germany is important in both importing and exporting hubs.
  • Determinants: urbanization, GDP, environmental regulation, sharing language or religion, culture & historical relationships
Global network of waste paper trade (2018).
Global network of waste paper trade (2018).

Author: Qi Zhang
Updated: April 2022

Gang Wu
Gang Wu
Associate Professor


Qi Zhang
Qi Zhang
Research Assistant Professor

Human-Environment Geographer